Question: Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin talk about many examples of remediation and quotes from Marshall McLuhan, “the ‘content’ of any medium is always another medium. The content of writing is speech, just as the written word is the content of print, and print is th”, content of the telegraph”. Do you think we can have any kind of innovative medium without containing any existing media? Most examples are related to vision and audition. I am expecting someday we may invent some new medium related to gustation and smell. (Actually Google made a joke that they had made the smell production on April Fools Day)

Example: I would like to highlight the game “Second Life”, in which players can define his or her own life and interaction with other users. This game uses immediacy, hypermediacy and remediation concepts. This is a virtual real life game and participated by many users. Just as indicated in Immediacy, Hypermediacy, and Remediation, Programmers seek to remove the traces of their presence in order to give the program the greatest possible autonomy. (27) People can speak, shopping and even claim their own intellectual property in the game. As a sophisticated game, there are also many scenes or “windows” in the virtual world. Users can even receive education in the game. The distant education, which involves image, sound and video, is made more real by this game. If we view these components of the game as different media, the ultimate goal of the game would be similar to what Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin indicate that ‘the new medium can remediate by trying to absorb the older medium entirely, so that the discontinuities between the two are minimized.” (47)

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Remixing Questions

1. How do we judge the similarity between two works? In the video, we look at different kinds of works, like music, movies and technologies. But it is obvious that the similarity of two music is different from that of two electronic devices. Also, when we say “structural similarity”, the structure of two music is different from that of two movies. Then how do we judge that two works across different fields are similar under the same big topic “intellectual property protection”? Do you think all the examples given in the video are really convincing? For me, I would not think that  some episodes given in the video are similar.

2. China benefits a lot from copying the products from western world over past decades. The situation may be similar to the early twenty century United States when Charles Dickens’ work is not well protected well in United States. How do you think the intellectual disputes between different countries since they may not have an agreement of what is an intellectual property?

3. Sir William Timothy Gowers, the receiver of Fields award (The Nobel Prize in the field of mathematics), published a blog to resist Elsevier, a publishing company of many famous journals. ( He claims that Elsevier prevents the transmission of knowledge. Do you think we should discriminate intellectual property of different fields, i.e., academic, entertainment and education? We need to protect intellectual properties but in certain fields intellectual properties should be open to the public.

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Barry Hampe’s Video Advice

1. Realize that whet you see is not what you shoot. You need to have a clear mind of what to present and captures it with the camera (50 – 51). However, these ideas should be expressible in videos or not too difficult to be expressed in video (54 – 55).

2. Know that what you record is not the final product. Editing is an important process (53).

3. Always remember that the video part is most important and indispensable. The other components, including the sound, may help understand the video. But they are only auxiliary (52 – 53). Do not depend too much on interview because they are not very reliable (59).

4. You need to know that most ideas should be directly expressible in the visual parts. You may not be able to explain them in other ways (58). The the view of the record, together with the behavior and words, provides all the evidence for the idea to be expressed (56-57, 6o).

5. When editing the recording, try to focus on what you want to express. Erase the irrelevant and uninteresting part, and be cautious that your product may have some bad effects if you are not careful (61-62).

6. Try to make sure that your product achieves what you want. Do not make the narration inconsistent with the visual representation. Also do not make your product be easily misinterpreted (64 – 65).

7. Be honest. Do not omit something on purpose. Unreal images, fiction footage and reenactment are allowed as long as they do not mislead the viewers (65 – 67).

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Sound Analysis

McKee provides a framework for sound analysis: vocal delivery, sound effect, music and silence. McKee also talks about the modal relation, but the three pieces are merely audio, so we only focus on the four aspects of the audio.

In Own Worst Enemy, since this is an audio drama, the audio tries to imitate the actual sense of drama. There are many sound effects used in the audio. The noisy restaurant background, the ringtone and the cars all serve as the context of the story so we know implicitly where the story happens. Also the phone conversation is edited to feel like it is happening in the phone. The vocal quality also varies. There are actually two voices producing the same exact words but have different effect. The pitch, linkage between words and tone differ in the two voices to produce the different effect. One is the actual communication between the man and the lady, which sound very gentle and polite. While in the recording of the conversation, the man sounds flippant. During the conversation, there are also several silences serving as the clue of the development of the story. After a relative long silence, we know the plot would change. Music also plays an important role here. At first the music is quite deep. When the man finally succeed to improve his voice, the background music become rising and quick, which feels happy.  This piece is the one among the three using most of all the elements provided by McKee.

In The Super Always Rings Twice, there are several voices that are distinguishable by the voice quality. One male monologue is narrative to indicate the development of the story. When some interesting part of the story happens, some other voice will appear and tell that part. In most of the part, the pitch, tone, speed and loudness will change. This will attract the attention of the audience. Music here is to enhance the emotion of the story. The most interesting part is John Mascol’s storytelling. The background music is quite silent and slow and feel mysterious. There are also several intended silences to make this part even more extraordinary and enhance the terrified feeling.

Basically Big Brains is made from several male and female voices. Their voice varies when the stories proceed in order to express some particular emotion at the point of the story. The voice variation is ordinary for native English speaker. For example, when the lady finally realizes that his old knowledge of meal that chicken is for dinner all the time is wrong, her pitch and loudness increase to express a kind of astonishment. It seems that it is a special design that each story is broken into two pieces, sometimes separated by music. The first part is how the narrator forms the wrong knowledge and the second piece is that how he/she realizes that the knowledge is wrong. The choice of music is not arbitrary. Mostly the music is of jazz style, which aims to make the whole atmosphere relaxed and easy. This is harmonious with the stories because they are fun and anecdotal. I do not find any special sound effect. Mostly there are music as the background. But different from the previous two, the music also serves as a transition of different stories. Also, there is no specially designed silence effect in the audio. The silence in the audio is quite natural.

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Graffiti Project Sketch


This is the background I will use. My graffito title will be “save arts”, to call attention to arts vandalism problem. My idea would be making the lady talk as in a comic “save me”. And draw a doctor to state that “No vandalism = Save arts”. Perhaps put another policeman saying that “vandalism to arts, violence to humans”.

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Graffiti activity and Architecture


The original picture was taken outside the Kranner art museum. We imagine that the green stain like the melting of the statue. The big statue is like an unknown species and the small statue is like the kid cuddling the big one. So we make a graffito to call the attention of animal diversity problem caused by global warming. The fire projector are held by two people, representing that  human beings are damaging the unknown animals by “heating” them with global warming. The fire also causes the statue to melt.

County Market main

The first example is county market on campus. This building is quite spacious and looks like a big box. People come to this place for shopping, mainly foods. The behavior inside this building is picking different products, talking with friends and other common shopping behaviors as everyone knows. In relating to Swanson’s reading, maybe because the building is large, people can behave as they want. In general, this kind of supermarkets are large and clean, like Walmart and Meijer. This place is for shopping, so what we are supposed to do is to shop here, not eating, studying or lying on the ground. I do not know anybody behaving like this and I am not sure what will happen if someone read a book or do programming here. It is quite strange for someone doing such things here. But libraries are also very large. So the interpretation of the space depends on our culture knowledge. When we enter a place full of storage racks and all kinds of products, we know we should shop here, not grab some cookies and eat directly like in a buffet restaurant.

Engineering Lib

This is the engineering library. I come here for quiet studying. This is also a large building. People come to this building for reading, programming, checking out and returning books and other things related to the building. It also looks like a big box, but not so square. This building has different function areas. Some places are for group meeting and discussion. Some places are for quite studying. Some places are for doing programming. So how people behave in the building really depends on which area people they stay in. This large building lies in the middle of engineering campus and it is expected to satisfy the demand of engineering students, like doing projects and finding textbooks. The interpretation of this building also depends on culture background. But specifically, it also depends on personal experience. We may know this is a library. But which part should we go to for our purpose really depends on our personal experience in this building, like where we can find the books we need and where we can find discussion rooms.

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Q1: As a student from natural science and engineering discipline, I feel that the Drucker, the author of “Language in the Landscape.”, makes many claims that are exaggerated. For example, the author states that “FIRE PROOF” reminds people that the management of the building is responsible. What do you think? From my perspective, we need at least some statistics or psychological studies to justify these claims.

Q2: The author gives an example that “NO DELAY CLEANERS” simply describes the operation and “NO D-LAY KLEENERS” calls attention to itself. Which one do you believe is better for an advertisement?

Q3: Just a small question. How are the streets named in the country? I saw Harvard St., Columbia St., Stanford Dr., Princeton Dr. in C-U area before. Why some streets are named by these schools? In China, there are streets named with schools. But the streets are in the nearby district of the school. For example, in China, the Princeton Dr. is probably a street near Princeton University.

IMG_0014I took the picture at the northern part of the campus. This white small house is quite obscure and not easy to find. I am not sure why PEPSI puts this graffito here. But it is right at the corner of the parking lot of Niro’s Gyros and the restaurant also uses PEPSI’s logo on the brand. They may have some kind of relationship.


Drucker’s reading focuses on the language part of the graffito and this graffito is very likely to be an advertisement of PEPSI. The five letters are traditional PEPSI writings and nothing special here. I google the relationship between Niro’s Gyros and PEPSI but do not find any useful information. So this graffito might remind people of PEPSI because when people park the vehicles and seek food here, they could see this graffito. Then it evokes their desire for PEPSI. Especially the blue logo looks very fresh and cool.

I think that graffiti are not formal. So the information it conveys should not be formal and grave, like Drucker’s example of “SCOTTISH RITE TEMPLE”. My image of graffiti is that they are mostly humorous and energetic.

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